Interactive Design by Children: A Construct Map for Programming
Hansen, A. K., Dwyer, H. A., Hill, C., Iveland, A., Martinez, T., Harlow, D., & Franklin, D
Abstract. In this paper, we present our analysis of 92 fourth graders’ digital stories completed in Sandbox, a Scratch-like programming environment. Projects were analyzed for the way that students programmed the start of the story, and if the program integrated user-centered design by providing instruction to the user on how to interact with the digital story. We found that fourth grade students rarely utilized user-centered design while creating digital stories in our block-based programming environment. Without explicit instruction, the demands of learning programming and simultaneously programming for an abstract user may be too cognitively demanding for the average fourth grader.